Attachment, Regulation and Competency


ARC Publications


Second Edition

Blaustein, M. & Kinniburgh, K. (2018).  Treating traumatic stress in children and adolescents: How to foster resilience through attachment, self-regulation, and competency, Second Edition.  New York: Guilford Press.

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arcbookcoverFirst Edition

Blaustein, M. & Kinniburgh, K. (2010).  Treating traumatic stress in children and adolescents: How to foster resilience through attachment, self-regulation, and competency.  New York: Guilford Press.

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ARC-Based Curricula

Blaustein, M. & Kinniburgh, K. (2017). ARC Reflections Training Program. The Annie E. Casey Foundation

Click here to access the full curriculum.

ARC GROW: Adapted from Kinniburgh, Blaustein, Blodgett, and Schibel (2012). Application of the ARC Framework as a Parent Home Visiting Intervention. Spokane WA: WSU Area Health Education Center in association with K. Kinniburgh and M. Blaustein.

Book Chapters and White Papers

Blaustein, M.  & Kinniburgh, K. (2017).  The Attachment, Regulation, and Competency (ARC) treatment model.  In M. Landolt, U. Schnyder, and M. Cloitre (Eds.). Evidence-based Treatments for Trauma-Related Disorders in Children and Adolescents, Springer International Publishing.

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Blaustein, M.  & Habib, M. (2016).  Group treatment with trauma impacted youth.  In C. Haen and S. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, Routledge Press.

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Ford, J., Blaustein, M., Habib, M., and Kagan, R. (2013).  Developmental Trauma Disorder-Focused Interventions for Traumatized Children and Adolescents.  In J. D. Ford & C. A. Courtois (Ed.). Treating complex traumatic stress disorders in children: An evidence-based guide. New York: Guilford Press.

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rossenhullbookcoverBlaustein, M. (2012). Introduction to childhood trauma and a framework for intervention.  In E. Rossen & R. Hull (Eds.), Supporting and Educating Traumatized Children: A Guide for Educators and Professionals.  Oxford University Press.

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Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Rishel, C., Tabone, J., Hartnett, H., Szafran, K. (2019) Trauma-Informed Elementary Schools: Evaluation of School-Based Early Intervention for Young Children, Children & Schools, 41, 239-248.

Tweedie, M. G., Belanger, C., Rezazadeh, K., & Vogel, K. (2017). Trauma-informed teaching practice and refugee children: A hopeful reflection on welcoming our new neighbours to Canadian schools. BC TEAL, 2(1), 36-35.

Bartlett, J.D., Griffin, J.L., Spinazzola, J., Fraser, J.G., Noroña, C.R., Bodian, R., Todd, M., Motagna, C., & Barto, B. (2017). The impact of a statewide trauma-informed care initiative in child welfare on the well-being of children and youth with complex trauma. Children and Youth Services Review, 84, 110-117.

Holland, J., Begin, D., Orris, D., & Meyer, A. (2017). A descriptive analysis of the theory and processes of an innovative day program for young women with trauma-related symptoms. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, DOI: 10.1080/0164212X.2017.1393369.

Hodgdon, H., Blaustein, M., Kinniburgh, K., Peterson, M. & Spinazzola, J. (2016). Application of the ARC model with adopted children: Supporting resiliency and family well being.  Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 9, 43-53.

Holmes, C., Levy, M., Smith, A., Pinne, S., & Neese, P. (2015). A model for creating a supportive trauma-informed culture for children in preschool settings. Journal Of Child And Family Studies, 24(6), 1650-1659.

Ford, J. & Blaustein, M. (2013).  Systemic self-regulation: A framework for trauma-informed services in residential juvenile justice programs.  Journal of Family Violence, 28.

Hodgdon, H., Kinniburgh, K., Gabowitz, D., Blaustein, M. & Spinazzola, J. (2013).  Development and implementation of trauma-informed programming in residential schools using the ARC framework. Journal of Family Violence, 28, 679-692.

Arvidson, J., Kinniburgh, K., Howard, K., Spinazzola, J., Strothers, H., Evans, M., Andres, B., Cohen, C. & Blaustein, M. (2011).  Treatment of complex trauma in young children: Developmental and cultural considerations in applications of the ARC intervention model.  Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 4, 34-51.

Invited Journal Articles

Blaustein, M. and Kinniburgh, K. (2015).  When age doesn’t match stage: Challenges and considerations in services for transition-age youth with histories of developmental trauma.  Focal Point: Youth, Young Adults, & Mental Health. Trauma-Informed Care, 29, 17-20. Click here to access article.

Blaustein, M. & Kinniburgh, K. (2007).  Intervening beyond the child: The intertwining nature of attachment and trauma.  Briefing Paper: Attachment Theory Into Practice.  British Psychological Society, Briefing Paper 26, 48-53.

Kinniburgh, K., Blaustein, M., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B.   (2005). Attachment, Self-Regulation, and Competency: A comprehensive intervention framework for children with complex trauma.  Psychiatric Annals, 35(5), 424 – 430.


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